Quantum Design PPMS® Measurement System

Physical Property Measurement System

The Quantum Design PPMS represents a unique concept in laboratory equipment: an open architecture, variable temperature-field system, designed to perform a variety of automated measurements.

Cryogen-Free Option Available as Upgrade:  The Quantum Design PPMS EverCool-II® is the cryogen-free upgrade to the industry-leading Physical Property Measurement System (PPMS) product line. Available as an upgrade to existing PPMS installations.

Technical Service and Application Support is available for the Quantum Design products. Download the PPMS service plan here.

Use the PPMS with specially-designed measurement options, or easily adapt it to your own experiments. Sample environment controls include fields up to ±16 tesla and temperature range of 1.9 – 400 K.  Its advanced expandable design combines many features in one instrument to make the PPMS  the most versatile system of its kind.

FEATURES

  • Compatible with more than 20 Quantum Design Measurement Options that seamlessly integrate with the MultiVu software environment
  • Versatile sample mounts couple easily to the 12 electrical leads built into the cryostat insert for consistently reliable electrical acces
  • Software controls for the temperature and magnetic field readily enable the automation of complex data acquisition procedures
  • The included Model 6000, a sophisticated microprocessor-controlled device, eliminates the need to use or purchase external bridges, current sources, or voltage sources for basic system operation
  • Sample chamber has 2.6 cm diameter to accommodate custom probes
  • Interface with external 3rd party instruments, whether controlling these from within MultiVu or directing the PPMS from external software, such as NI LabVIEW
  • PPMS Magnet Options
  • Select from 9 T, 14 T, or 16 T longitudinal solenoid magnet configurations
  • For transverse fields, a 7 T split-coil configuration is available
  • Systems may also be ordered without any installed magnet

 

Dr Shayz Ikram

Product Specialist
+44 (0)1372 378822
shayz@qd-uki.co.uk

David Want

Product Specialist
+44 (0)1372 378822
david@qd-uki.co.uk

Options

HELIUM-3 REFRIGERATOR OPTION

The Dilution Refrigerator option allows access to a temperature range of 4 K – 50 mK, the lowest temperature attainable in a PPMS. Seamless integration means temperature control is just as simple as in the base PPMS, with all gas handling and manifold operations automatically controlled by the MultiVu software.

  • Base temperature (50 mK) is typically achieved in about 5 hours when cooling from room temperature
  • Closed cycle system ensures the valuable 3He/4He gas mixture is not lost in normal operation
  • Compatible measurement options include AC Susceptibility, Heat Capacity, and Electrical Transport

DILUTION REFRIGERATOR OPTION

A range of nearly four decades in temperature (350 K – 0.4 K) is accessible with the Helium-3 Refrigerator. Seamless integration means temperature control is just as simple as in the base PPMS, with all gas handling and manifold operations automatically controlled by the MultiVu software.

  • Base temperature (0.4 K) is typically achieved in about 2 hours when cooling from room temperature
  • Closed cycle system ensures the valuable 3He gas is not lost in normal operation
  • Compatible measurement options include Heat Capacity, and Electrical Transport

ADIABATIC DEMAGNETISATION REFRIGERATOR (ADR)

The minimum achievable temperature (at zero field) in the PPMS is readily extended down to 100 mK with the ADR. Using the PPMS magnet to leverage the magnetocaloric effect in paramagnetic salt cools samples to 100 mK, and electrical transport properties can be measured as the temperature drifts back up to the nominal PPMS base.

  • Base temperature (100 mK) is typically achieved in about 3 hours when cooling from room temperature
  • Uncontrolled drift up to 1.9 K typically lasts about 2 hours
  • Compatible with all electrical transport options

HEAT CAPACITY OPTION

High-precision microcalorimetry experiments can be performed using the Heat Capacity option to measure a sample’s heat capacity as a function of temperature. Measurements in a static applied magnetic field are also possible using the automated field calibration function of the software.

  • Typical addenda signal of 0.2 μJ/K at 2 K, where signal resolution is 2 nJ/K
  • Software automates the collection of addenda (background) signal and performs the necessary subtraction for determining the sample’s heat capacity
  • Integrated data post-processing tools enable high-resolution sampling of sharp first-order transitions

THERMAL TRANSPORT OPTION

Thermoelectric materials can be rapidly characterized using the TTO to simultaneously measure a sample’s thermal conductivity, Seebeck coefficient, and electrical resistivity. A continuous data acquisition mode allows for higher density curves to be collected in less time to increase throughput for a typically time-consuming measurement.

  • The thermoelectric figure of merit ZT is automatically calculated for fast and convenient data evaluation
  • Included sample mounting supplies allow for a wide variety of materials to be measured

DILATOMETER

Subtle changes in a sample’s lattice expansion/contraction due to changes in temperature or magnetic field are readily characterised using the dilatometer option. An innovative fused-silica construction drastically minimises background signals compared with traditional copper-cell setups, and no costly absolute capacitance bridge is required.

  • Sample dilation signals less than 10 pm can be resolved (at 2 K)
  • Bulk coefficients of thermal expansion of magnetostriction are automatically calculated and reported
  • High purity copper sample and reference data provided

VIBRATING SAMPLE MAGNETOMETER (VSM)

The VSM enables the measurement of a sample’s magnetic moment as a function of temperature or magnetic field. Magnetic phase transitions and hysteretic behavior are quickly resolved with typical acquisition times for a single datum around 1 second.

  • Noise levels of less than 6·10-7 emu at 300 K are achieved using a lock-in measurement technique to isolate the sample signal from external mechanical and electronic noise
  • A temperature sensor integrated within the coil set provides local sample thermometry via exchange gas coupling
  • The optional Large Bore Coil Set enables an even wider variety of sample holders with minimal loss of sensitivity

VSM OVEN

The VSM Oven allows for conventional VSM measurements in the temperature range of 300 – 1000 K. A special alumina sample holder with an integrated resistive heater and temperature sensor locally heat and sense the sample temperature.

  • User kit comes standard with high temperature Zircar cement and copper radiation shields for sample mounting
  • Noise levels are less than 6·10-6 emu at 300 K

FIRST ORDER REVERSAL CURVE (FORC) MEASUREMENTS OPTION

First Order Reversal Curve (FORC) measurements and their subsequent analysis provide additional insights into the magnetic reversal mechanisms of samples that conventional major hysteresis loops cannot. The families of curves generated can reveal signatures of particular magnetic reversal mechanisms.

  • Compatible with any Quantum Design VSM configuration
  • FORC distributions can be displayed in real-time during a measurement

TORQUE MAGNETOMETRY OPTION

The torque magnetometer measures a sample’s magnetic moment through the application of a static magnetic field to generate a torque on a small cantilever. The torsion is measured using piezoresistive elements to study the moment as a function of magnetic field strength, temperature, or angular orientation with respect to the field.

  • Noise levels in the measured torque are 1·10-9 N·m (high sensitivity cantilever)
  • Integrated calibration loop on the cantilever chip

AC SUSCEPTIBILITY OPTION (ACMS II)

The AC Measurement System (ACMS II) utilises a mutual induction-based technique to determine a sample’s dynamic (AC) susceptibility. The system also enables the user to perform DC magnetisation measurements without any changes to the hardware configuration for unparalleled convenience.

  • AC moment sensitivity of 1·10-8 emu is achieved by a multi-point automated nulling procedure to minimise the contribution of background signal
  • AC excitation fields of 0.05 – 15 Oe are available at frequencies from 10 Hz – 10 kHz
  • Automated touch-down procedure preserves sample centring across large changes in temperature
  • Capability to record higher harmonic data is available as an optional upgrade

AC Susceptibility

Drive Amplitude: 0.002 Oe – 4 Oe (peak)

Sensitivity: 5 x 10-7 emu

Phase Accuracy: 2°

Frequency Range: 10 Hz to 10 kHz

DC Field Range

Up to ±12 T

Temperature Range

50 mK – 4 K

FIBRE OPTIC SAMPLE HOLDER (FOSH) FOR VSM

The VSM Fiber Optic Sample Holder (FOSH) enables light to be delivered to the VSM sample space during a measurement.

  • Specialised sample rod and holder transmits a wide spectrum of light
  • Standardised fibre connection ensures compatibility with a variety of light sources

PRESSURE CELL (MAGNETOMETRY)

The pressure cell option for magnetometry is manufactured by HMD, a leading Japanese supplier of pressure cells. A simplified design requires neither copper sealing rings or a hydraulic press to achieve the maximum available pressure of 1.3 GPa.

  • Included manometer materials are tin and lead
  • BeCu construction affords a minimal, uniform magnetic background

PPMS SPM BY ATTOCUBE SYSTEMS

The PPMS sample environment can be converted into a high-performance microscopy platform with the suite of attocube SPM inserts.

  • Separate variants enable: atomic force microscopy (AFM), magnetic force microscopy (MFM), scanning Hall probe microscopy (SHPM), or confocal microscopy (CFM)
  • 3 mm x 3 mm positioning range; 12 μm x 12 μm scanning range

HIGH PRESSURE CELL FOR MAGNETOMETRY

Introducing a novel, high pressure cell for magnetometry that allows easier sample insertion and removal without the need of an hydraulic press. This pressure cell, manufactured by HMD, comes in a complete kit that contains all the accessories you will need to aid in the characterisation of your samples.

Benefits of the HMD Pressure Cell:

  • All BeCu design for more uniform magnetic background
  • No copper ring seal ensures easy sample removal
  • All necessary accessories conveniently packaged
  • Compatible with VSM transport
  • No hydraulic press necessary

Specifications of the HMD Pressure Cell:

  • Maximum Applied Pressure – 1.3 GPa
  • Sample Space Diameter – 1.7, 2.2 mm
  • Sample Space Length – 7 mm max
  • Background Signal – 4▪10-7 emu/T
  • Temperature Range – 1.8 to 400 K | 0 to 9 T
  • Please Note: Requires VSM and Large Bore Coil Set

HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE CELL FOR ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS

The Transport Pressure Cell Option for the PPMS is manufactured by ElectroLab, a leading Japanese supplier of pressure cells. It enables up to two 4-probe measurements (typically for the sample and a manometer) of electrical transport at pressures as high as 2.7 GPa.

  • Includes manometer materials of tin and lead
  • Data can be collected with any PPMS-compatible QD transport option

Benefits of the ElectroLab Pressure Cell:

  • Based on BeCu pressure cell technology
  • Integrated external thermometer
  • 10 sample leads (5 twisted pairs)
  • Compatible with all QD PPMS platforms
  • Manufactured by the leading supplier of hydrostatic pressure cells in Japan
  • Several press sets also available

Specifications of the ElectroLab Pressure Cell:

  • Maximum Applied Load – 3.0 GPa
  • Maximum Sample Pressure – 2.7 GPa
  • Sample Space Diameter – 4.0 mm
  • Sample Space Length – 6.0 mm max
  • Operational Range – 1.8 to 400 K | 0 to 9 T

RAMAN & LUMINESCENCE SPECTROSCOPY SYSTEM

Raman spectra from samples in the variable temperature and magnetic field environment of the PPMS are readily captured using MultiVu. Integrated optics reduce elastic scattering signal to resolve signal in the low-wavenumber regime with the included imaging spectrograph.

  • 532 nm laser excitation wavelength
  • Used in conjunction with the OMFP for sample position control

Applications of the Raman Spectroscopy System:

  • Structural Identification
  • Impurity Detection
  • Crystallisation Analysis
  • Bulk and thin film
  • Stokes and Anti-Stokes Signal

NANOSC FMR SPECTROMETERS

Broadband FMR spectroscopy allows for measurements continuously spanning several 10’s of GHz. Measurements over a wide frequency range allow for significant improvements in accurately extracting a variety of material parameters not accessible by static measurement techniques.

  • Turn-key FMR spectrometer with easy to use software interface
  • Can quantify effective magnetisation (Meff), anisotropy (K), gyromagnetic ratio (γ), damping (α), inhomogeneous broadening (ΔHO), exchange stiffness (A), and inverse spin Hall effect (ISHE) voltage

(ANDOR SHAMROCK 193I SPECTROGRAPH WITH
COMPACT IMAGING SPECTROGRAPHIVAC 316 CCD)

Quantum Design now adds in-situ structural and chemical spectra analysis to PPMS materials characterisation measurements at low temperature and high magnetic fields. This ability answers a growing demand in the research community. Offering a wide range of modular interfaces that feature cage system couplers, Quantum Design offers endlessly configurable connections between the Compact Imaging Spectrograph and the PPMS Optical Multi-Function Probe (OMFP). The spectrograph’s “wide aperture” slit opens the door to a single set up with the OMFP to image the sample, while also allowing spectral information collection through the same optical path from the microscope.

Features of the Andor Shamrock 1931 Spectrograph:

  • Integrated control and data acquisition through PPMS MultiVu software
  • Dual grating turret with RFID
  • Dual Detector Output
  • Adaptive Focus
  • Pre-aligned and calibrated
  • Compact and rugged design

Applications for the Andor Shamrock 1931 Spectrograph:

  • Absorption, Transmission, and Reflection
  • Raman (532, 785, and 850 nm)
  • Fluorescence and Luminescence

DILATOMETER OPTION

Subtle changes in a sample’s lattice expansion/contraction due to changes in temperature or magnetic field are readily characterised using the dilatometer option. An innovative fused-silica construction drastically minimises background signals compared with traditional copper-cell setups, and no costly absolute capacitance bridge is required.

  • Sample dilation signals less than 10 pm can be resolved (at 2 K)
  • Bulk coefficients of thermal expansion of magnetostriction are automatically calculated and reported
  • High purity copper sample and reference data provided

OPTICAL MULTI-FUNCTION PROBE

The newly designed Optical Multi-Function Probe (OMFP) offers unprecedented flexibility and versatility that allows you to conduct photonic, quantum optics and correlative microscopy experiments within the variable temperature and magnetic field environments of the PPMS, DynaCool and VersaLab. The OMFP probe features a room temperature “head” with multiple access ports and integrated optical breadboard for mounting optical components such as spherical and achromatic lenses, turning mirrors, filters, diffusers, beam splitters, prisms, waveplates, fibre bundles and electrical wiring. The open modular design of the probe head provides easy access to the axial ports and connectors which can be configured to route electrical, single fibres, fibre bundles and miniature waveguides to the sample space. In addition, a central optical access port allows free-beam optics experiments in the cryostat. A 0.5 in. standard optical thread mount makes aligning and focusing lens assemblies fast and easy.

Features of the Optical Multi-Function Probe:

  • Available for VersaLab, DynaCool and PPMS
  • Half inch (SM05) free-beam access port for optical capability along optical path
  • Direct axial electrical, SMA and other ports to sample stage provided to install light pipes, fibre optics cables, and/or electrical leads
  • 2 sets of 4 electrical leads on sample PCB interface for electrical transport experiments
  • Multiple measurement capability (e.g., electrical resistivity, Hall effect, Van der Pauw, magnetometry and other optical measurements)
  • Integrated wiring for optional motorised Cartesian positioning system (3 x 3 x 3 mm movement capability)
  • Sample stage with integrated thermometer
  • Multi-Position filter and lens mounts for cold region of probe
  • 300 K to 50 K, ± 3 T (VersaLab); 300 K to 1.8 K, ± 14 T (DynaCool); 300 K to 1.9 K, ± 16 T (PPMS)

Applications for the Optical Multi-Function Probe:

  • Free optics studies
  • Fibre optics measurements
  • Thermal-Optical properties
  • Magneto-Optical properties

CARTESIAN POSITIONING SYSTEM

A fully motorised Cartesian sample positioning system can be used with the Optical Multi-Function Probe (OMFP) to focus a laser beam or other excitation source on a particular region of the sample. The Cartesian positioning system provides for an XYZ movement capability of 3 x 3 x 3 mm.

MAGNETO-OPTIC OPTION

For experiments requiring illumination inside the PPMS sample space, two broadband xenon light sources are available:

TLS120Xe High Power Tuneable Light Source

The TLX120Xe utilises a 100 W source and integrates a motorised monochromator such that the light wavelength can be selected using a sequence command in MultiVu

  • 100 W Short-Arc Xenon Arc Lamp
  • Wavelength Range: 280 nm – 1100 nm
  • Direct wavelength control through front panel or MultiVu

MLS Xenon Light Source

The MLS 300 W source includes a manual selection filter wheel for passing pre-determined wavelengths of light

  • 300 W Short-Arc Xenon Arc Lamp
  • 10 position filter wheel
  • 9 bandpass filters (436 nm, 470 nm, 500 nm, 530 nm, 555 nm, 585 nm, 640 nm, 740 nm, 850 nm)

OPTIX BREADBOARD

When custom user experiments require the integration of table-top optical elements a breadboard option can be added to the PPMS base cryostat.

  • 1-inch grid of 1/4″– 20 mounting holes
  • Integrated vibration dampening mechanism

IR IMAGE FURNACE

2- and 4-Mirror Floating Zone Crystal Furnaces

The high-performance, compact IR Image Furnace from Quantum Design offers unsurpassed performance in a convenient, stand-alone design. Rivalling much larger and more costly IR furnaces, it uses the Floating Zone (FZ) method to promote single crystal growth from a polycrystalline rod. This method has been shown to be extremely effective for a wide class of materials. Now, more easily than ever before, you have the ability to synthesise superior quality single crystal specimens in your own laboratory.

Learn more about the IR IMAGE FURNACE here.

TETRA ARC FURNACE

GES Corporation’s Tetra Arc Crystal Furnace uses the Czochralski pulling method and four electric arcs to grow a wide range of metallic-conductive materials such as metallic compounds and high-temperature superconductors. Achieving a 10-6 Torr vacuum within an hour, and using four electric arcs to heat materials up to 3000° C, this furnace provides easy operation and real time monitoring of the crystallisation process via CCD camera and four monitoring windows.

Read more about the TETRA ARC CRYSTAL FURNACE here.

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