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J A Woollam M2000 Spectroscopic Ellipsometer
Ellipsometer for thin film characterisation
The M-2000 line of spectroscopic ellipsometers is engineered to meet the diverse demands of thin film characterisation. An advanced optical design, wide spectral range, and fast data acquisition combine in an extremely powerful and versatile tool.
The M-2000 delivers both speed and accuracy. J A Woollam’s patented RCE technology combines Rotating Compensator Ellipsometry with high-speed CCD detection to collect the entire spectrum (hundreds of wavelengths) in a fraction of a second with a wide array of configurations.
The M-2000 is the first ellipsometer to truly excel at everything from in-situ monitoring and process control to large-area uniformity mapping and general purpose thin film characterisation. No other ellipsometer technology acquires a full spectrum faster.
- Advanced Ellipsometer Technology
- The M-2000 uses the Woollam patented RCE (rotating compensator ellipsometer) technology to achieve high accuracy and precision
- Fast Spectral Detection
- The RCE design is compatible with advanced, proven CCD detection to measure ALL wavelengths simultaneously
- Wide Spectral Range
- Collect over 700 wavelengths from the ultraviolet to the near infrared – all simultaneously
- Flexible System Integration
- With modular optical design, the M-2000 is suited for direct attachment to your process chamber or configured on any of Woollam’s table-top bases
- Advanced design ensures accurate ellipsometry measurements for any sample.
The horizontal M-2000 system offers wide range of options like large area mapping, liquid cells, and heat stages.
Ideal for general use and large samples.
The vertical M-2000 system offers wide angle range and flexibility.
Independent control of sample and detector angle for
diverse reflection or transmission measurements.
The fixed angle M-2000 system offers budget-friendly base option compatible with several accessories (translator size shown: 50×50 mm XY).
The smallest M-2000 spot size available (25 by 60 microns) for demanding feature sizes.
Film thickness and optical properties are critical to performance of solar devices. Ellipsometry is used for development and monitoring of all PV materials: a-Si, μc-Si, poly-Si, AR Coatings (SiNx, AlNx), TCO Films (ITO, ZnOx, doped SnO2, AZO), CdS, CdTe, CIGS, organic PV materials, and dye sensitised films.
Thickness measurements are not independent of the optical constants. The film thickness affects the path length of light travelling through the film, but the index determines the light waves’ velocity and refracted angle. Thus, both contribute to the delay between surface reflection and light travelling through the film. Both n and k must be known or determined along with the thickness to get the correct results from an optical measurement.
Accurate wavelength selection using monochromator allows measurements at the operating wavelength for optics, e.g. 1550nm, 1310nm, 980nm, 632.8nm, 589nm.
The film thickness is determined by interference between light reflecting from the surface and light travelling through the film. Depending on the relative phase of the rejoining light to the surface reflection, interference can be defined as constructive or destructive. The interference involves both amplitude and phase information.
The M-2000 can be used for a variety of chemical and biological applications, either as a stand-alone tool or in combination with one of our many accessories. Study materials under liquid ambient, at high or low temperatures, or in conjunction with QCM-D measurements.
Great progress has occurred in the area of organic layers and stacks used for display (OLED) or photovoltaic applications. There are many different materials being studied, from small molecules such as Alq3 to conjugated polymers such as P3HT. Often multiple materials are blended together – which requires the wide spectral range of the M-2000 – to probe different wavelengths where the organics are optically different. Long-chain molecules may also have significant anisotropy, where orientational stacking of the polymer chains produces different optical constants in different directions
Traditional ellipsometry applications are still going strong. Characterise any semiconductor material: resists, photomasks, SiON, ONO stacks, low-k dielectrics, high-k gates, SOI, SiGe, II-VI and III-V ternary and quaternary compounds
Lithography thin films were an important motivation for the VUV-VASE® development. It has been successfully used to characterise all types of films in this area, including Photoresists and Bottom and Top AR Coatings
Metamaterials & the Meta-6 Layer
For ellipsometry, we usually consider only the electric-field component of the electromagnetic (EM) wave interaction with the material. We ignore the interaction of the magnetic-field component because atoms and molecules tend to have a weak magnetic response to EM waves at optical frequencies. Thus we usually consider only dielectric response (permittivity) and ignore magnetic permeability. However, certain kinds of metamaterials change all of that. Metamaterials consist of an artificially-created array of small structures or particles, usually smaller than the measurement wavelength. These structures or particles can be considered “artificial atoms” or “meta-atoms”, with properties tailored to interact with incoming EM waves in ways generally not observed in naturally occurring materials.