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Montana Instruments Cryostation Optical Cryostat S200
Closed Cycle Optical Cryostats
Montana Instruments are on a mission – to make cold science simple. Their philosophy is centred on three main principles:
1) Ease of use
2) Ease of access
3) Turn-key operation
All their optical cryostats are cryogen-free and combine low vibration, high temperature stability, low sample drift and superb optical access – making them suited for the most demanding cryogenic experiments.
As the sample space is modular, the user has many options regarding configuration of their experimental setup.
- Low vibration
- High temperature stability
- Low sample drift
- Sample in vacuum
- Table-top mounting architecture
- Fully automated cool-down and warm-up procedures
Largest working volume with the ability to integrate components directly onto the cold breadboard platform
Best For: Large cryogenic sample configurations with space for multiple accessories
Tradeoffs: Longer cooldown with slightly higher temperatures
Temperature Range: 3.6K – 350K
Temperature Stability: <20mK
Vibrational Stability: <15nm
Cool Down Time to 4.2K: ~10 hrs
Cooling Power @ Base T: 75 mW
Optical Access: 9 optical ports (8 radial + 1 overhead)
Acceptance Angle: 16′ full angle
Working Distance: 17.5 mm horizontal, 7.9 mm vertical
Electrical Access: 25 user connections, 8 configurable
Interface Side Panels: 4
Thermal Lagging: 6 locations
Temperature Sensors: 2 Calibrated Cernox™
Diamond NV Centers in Cryogenic Systems
Nitrogen-vacancy (NV) defect centres in diamond have recently exploded onto the scientific research scene. NV centres are extremely stable and have unique optical properties that enable a wide range of applications. In the field of quantum information science, NV centres may act as single photon sources for quantum computing applications. NV centres have also been demonstrated as quantum assisted sensing devices to resolve nanoscale variations in magnetic fields, electric fields, strain, temperature, and pressure. In the biological realm, NV centres have proven to be excellent biomarkers with unlimited photostability and low cytotoxicity.
Quantum Computing in Cryogenic Systems
Quantum computing promises to deliver major advances in a wide variety of fields including simulations of the natural world, virtual quantum experiments, quantum cryptography, data communication systems, and new pharmaceutical drug search and design. These exciting research frontiers in quantum computing rely on two hallmarks of quantum physics, namely, the superposition of states and quantum interference.
Single Photon Emitters
The Sparrow Quantum Single-Photon Chip requires a suitable cryostat with optical access for effective use. Montana Instruments provides such a solution with the CryoOptic® product line. This application uses an integrated system including the interface optics for exciting the chip and efficiently extracting single photons. It also describes an optical filter and a correlation setup to demonstrate the single-photon nature of the emission. The complete setup is mounted in an enclosure with a compact footprint.
Spintronics: Magneto-Optical Kerr Effect (MOKE)
The Magneto-Optical Kerr Effect (MOKE) and the Faraday effect describe the change in polarisation of incident light as it is reflected (or transmitted) by a magnetic material. These effects can be used for modulating the amplitude of light and form the basis of optical isolators and optical circulators that are integral to optical telecommunications networks and various laser applications. MOKE was widely used as an optical readout technique for logic state of magnetic storage media (hard disk drives), and the MOKE technique offers promise for real-time readout of logic states in new magnetic memory technologies such as MRAM.
Mitigating Thermal And Vibrational Noise
Many researchers employ low temperatures in their optical cavity experiments to reduce phonon broadening and enable material observations inaccessible at room temperature. For researchers studying optical cavities, there are experimental considerations that extend beyond simply achieving cryogenic temperatures. Factors such as temperature stability, ultra-low vibrations and accelerations, and the demands of sustaining a cryogenic environment for days, weeks, or even months deserve heightened importance when working at low temperatures.
Considerations For Cryogenic AFM Operation
Cryogenic environments increase the Q-factor of an AFM dramatically, which can amount to an enhanced sensitivity if correctly implemented. This typically requires the operator to understand how the resonator’s properties (amplitude, phase, resonance frequency) change in both magnitude and polarity, the pitfalls that can occur, and how they are manifest in the measurement. While an increase in sensitivity seems desirable, things that were literally ‘in the noise’ in ambient conditions can become formidable at low temperatures.
Variable Temperature Raman And PL Micro-Spectroscopy
Variable temperature Raman analysis of two-dimensional quantum materials is complicated by the limited luminescence (low signal-to-noise ratio) due to their low absorption rate, low conversion efficiency, and often a low laser input power (to avoid heating), especially in low temperature environments. At cryogenic temperatures, acquiring a signal from the material requires either long integration times or complicated optical setups aimed at improving the collection efficiency.
Variable Temperature Raman Micro-Spectroscopy
Compared to other 2D materials, Raman spectroscopy of all carbon-based nanomaterials offers a wealth of information wrapped within the spectral data. In room temperature studies, thermal fluctuations and lattice vibrational modes cause line broadening and local environmental averaging of spectra, which limits the amount of information that can be gleaned from the data. In this case, only strong perturbations of the sample will be sufficient to shift these broadened optical bands. At low temperature, however, spectral lines are narrower and much more insight can be obtained.
Optical Characterisation Of Low-Dimensional Materials
The study of low-dimensional materials is particularly interesting for their potential applications in quantum information, 2D optoelectronics, and bio-sensing. Temperature-dependent measurements are critical for observing interesting sample characteristics. Exploring phase transitions, molecular thermal activities, and crystal structure changes requires precise control over the sample temperature and measurement environment.